verb conjuctions

How to Easily Remember Italian Verb Conjugations Rules



In English, an infinitive is always preceded by to (to be, to do, and to read).
In its infinitive form, a verb has no subject and isn’t conjugated.

When you discover a new verb in Italian, you realize this “raw” form.

To use the verb effectively, you need to understand the rules of conjugation.

What is a conjugation?

In Italian a verb is recognizable from the last three letters that it takes in the infinitive (the infinitive is the form used in dictionary entries):
There are 3 of this conjugations:

  • 1st conjugation of verbs ending in -are as parl-are (to speak)

  • 2nd conjugation of verbs ending in -ere as cred-ere (to believe)

  • 3rd conjugation of verbs ending in -ire as dormire (to sleep)


Each verb has an invariable part (the stem), which carries its meaning, and an inflected part (the ending) which identifies the person, the tense, the mood, and other features.

Stems are essential because they are the structures to which you attach the different verb endings of the different tenses.

To conjugate verbs, you need to know who or what the subject is.
The subject tells you what to add to the verb stem, which you get by removing the –are, –ere, or –ire.

For example, the stem of parlare is parl-.
To this stem, you add endings based on the subject.
Each subject calls for a specific ending.

For example in the present tense:
Io (I) means that you add an -o to the verb stem: Io parlo, (I speak).
Noi (we) gets the ending -iamo, as in Noi parliamo (We eat).

Although in English you can’t use a verb without naming the subject, in Italian, the endings tell you what the subject is.
In a sense, the subject pronouns are redundant in Italian.

Regular verbs do not change their stems or roots so the stem remains the same when conjugated.
Irregular verbs change their stems so it may change form once it has been conjugated.

They don’t follow a pattern of standard endings. Therefore, you need to memorize them.
Most irregular verbs belong to the second conjugation.


The Anatomy of a Verb

Conjugation

Infinitive

Verb in English

Stem

Infinitive Ending

First parlare to speak parl- are
Second rispondere to respond rispond- ere
Third partire to depart part- ire

 



Regular -are verbs

Verbs of the first conjugation end in -are and are the most common verb in Italian.
In regular -are verbs, the person, or subject, is indicated by the ending, which is added to the stem.

To use an -are verb, first you remove the letters -are from the infinitive, which leaves you with the stem:
infinitive → parlare
stem: parl-

To the stem, you add the ending (-o, -i, -a, -iamo, -ate, or -ano) that reflects the subject (io, tu, lui, lei, Lei, noi, voi, loro)  (example of ending for the present tense) 

Common regular -are verbs

  • abitare to live
  • amare to love
  • ballare to dance
  • cambiare to change
  • cantare to sing
  • comprare to buy
  • domandare to ask a question
  • giocare to play a sport or game (adds -h- in the tu and noi forms)
  • guardare to look at
  • lasciare to leave
  • mangiare to eat (drops the -i- in the tu and noi forms)
  • pagare to pay (adds -h- in the tu and noi forms)
  • studiare to study (drops the -i- in the tu and noi forms)
  • suonare to play an instrument
  • trovare to find

Where to place the stress of a conjugated -ARE verb?

When pronouncing all forms of the verbs, note that—except for noi and voi—stress should be placed on the stem of the verb, not the ending. Although there are exceptions, this is particularly helpful to recall when you’re pronouncing the third-person plural (loro).


Regular -ere verbs

Verbs of the second conjugation end in -ere.

This is the second largest category of Italian verbs.
In regular -ere verbs, the person, or subject, is indicated by the ending, which is added to the stem.

The stress pattern in -ere verbs can be of two types.

In the infinitive form, some verbs have the stress on the penultimate syllable (vedere,temere) similar to the -are verbs, but most have the stress on the stem (vendere, prendere, spendere), or the third-to-last syllable.

Useful regular -ere verbs

  • accendere (to light)
  • cadere (to fail)
  • chiedere (to ask)
  • chiudere (to close)
  • credere (to believe)
  • leggere (to read)
  • mettere (to put)
  • prendere (to have/to take)
  • riceveer (to receive)
  • ripetere (to repeat)
  • rispondere (to aswer)
  • scendere (to go down)
  • scrivere (to write)
  • spendere (to spend)
  • vedere (to sea)
  • vincere ( to win)
  • vivere (to live)

Regular -ire verbs

There are two groups of –ire verbs.

The first group follows conjugation rules (for the present tense) that are similar to those for the –ere verbs except for the voi form.

♦ dormire (to sleep)

  • (io) dorm-o
  • (tu) dorm-i
  • (lei/lui) dorm-e
  • (noi) dorm-iamo
  • (voi) dorm-ite
  • (loro) dorm-ono

The second is known as an”isc” verb because all the conjugated forms, except for noi and voi, insert the letters isc between the stem and the endings.

 

Group of IRE verb with –isc adds

This group of the –ire verbs that adds -isc between the stem and the ending in first, second, and third-person singular and third-person plural. Most verbs of this type (capire, finire, ferire, preferire, pulire) tend to have one consonant and vowel just before the -ire ending.

How do you know which verbs take “isc” in their conjugation?
You don’t. You have to refer to the dictionary, which shows the conjugation right after the infinitive.

Common type 1 -ire verbs

  • aprire to open
  • dormire (to sleep)
  • fuggire (to escape)
  • offrire (to offer)
  • partire to depart
  • seguire to follow
  • sentire to hear

 

Common type 2 -ire verbs

  • capire (to understand)
  • finire (to finish)
  • preferire (to prefer)
  • pulire (to clean)
  • colpire (to hit)
  • costruire (to build)
  • guarire (to cure)
  • sparire (to disappear)
  • suggerire (to suggest)

 


How to easily remember all these rules of verb conjugations.

Here some examples for the present tense.

 


1st person singular ⇒ IO (I)

See the three conjugations together and notice that the endings for this IO it’s always -O for all the conjugations.

IO lavoro

IO vedo

IO sento



2nd person singular ⇒ TU(YOU sing)

See the three conjugations together and notice that the endings for this TU it’s always -I for all the conjugations.

TU lavori

TU vedi

TU senti

 

verbo-seconda-persona-sing


3rd person singular ⇒ LUI/LEI (HE/SHE)

See the three conjugations together and notice that the endings for this LUI/LEI  are different for the conjugation ARE from ERE and IRE

 

LUI/LEI lavora

LUI/LEI  vede

LUI/LEI  sente

1st person plural ⇒ NOI (WE)

See the three conjugations together and notice that the endings for this NOI it’s always -IAMO for all the conjugations.

NOI lavoriamo

NOI vediamo

NOI sentiamo

2nd person singular ⇒ VOI (YOU plur.)

See the three conjugations together and notice that the endings for this VOI it’s different for all the conjugation ARE/ ERE/IRE

VOI lavorate

VOI  vedete

VOI  sentite

 


3rd person plural ⇒ LORO (THEY)

See the three conjugations together and notice that the endings for this LORO are different for the conjugation ARE from ERE and IRE

LUI/LEI lavora

LUI/LEI  vede

LUI/LEI  sente




ITALIAN practice makes progress

Activities

Verbi in -ARE -

Conjugate the verb in the Present Tense


Verbi in -ERE -

Conjugate the verb in the Present Tense


Verbi in -IRE -

Conjugate the verb in the Present Tense


Verbi in -ARE - ERE - IRE

Conjugate the verb in the Present Tense

 


Do you want to read and listen to a list of High-frequency Italian verbs?

High-frequency Italian verbs


Learn how to use the special verb Piacere

How to Use Verb Piacere

 



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2 Responses

  1. Leslie Kinn

    I think this site is going to be great for me! I think I have a new found understanding of how to proceed and become more fluid in speaking.

    Thank you for the insights.

    Leslie

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