In this article, you’ll learn some common verbs taking both auxiliary AVERE and ESSERE in Italian Language.
The choice between avere and essere as the auxiliary verb is not straightforward in Italian.
All transitive verbs take avere.
All reflexive verbs take essere.
The problem lies with intransitive verbs.
Some take avere, some take essere, and some can take either.
We can say that:
If the subject takes an object, the verb is transitive takes avere.
If the subject cannot take an object, then it is intransitive takes essere.
Verbs that take either avere and essere
While the basic meaning of these verbs remains the same,
they take :
–> avere (as the auxiliary) when used transitively, and
–> essere when used intransitively.
Examples of Common Verbs taking auxiliary AVERE and ESSERE.
Used intransitively: Il film è cominciato tardi.
Used transitively: Maria ha cominciato il libro nuovo
Used intransitively: L’estate è passata in fretta
Used transitively: Mario ha passato l’estate al mare
Used intransitively: Il tempo è cambiato.
Used transitively: Carlo ha cambiato lavoro
Used intransitively: Il film è finito alle 10
Used transitively: Ho finito la scuola
Verbs conveying weather conditions, such as
♦ piovere (to rain),
♦ nevicare (to snow), and
♦ grandinare (to hail)
can take both essere o avere without differences.
You see them only in the third-person singular without any subject.
Common Verbs taking auxiliary AVERE and ESSERE:
- salire (to climb up)
- scendere (to climb down)
- cominicare/iniziare (to begin)
- continuare (to continue)
- finire /terminare (to end)
- seguire (to chease)
- vivere (to live)
- invecchiare (to age)
- migliorare (to improve)
- peggiorare (to worsen)
- cambiare (to change)
- crescere (to grow)
- girare (to turn)
- passare/trascorrere (to pass)
- guarire (to cure/get better)
- correre (to run)
- saltare (to jump)
- volare (to fly)
- durare (to last)
- cuocere (to cook)
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Auxiliary: Essere - Avere
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Insert the auxiliary + past participle – For the third person of verbo essere use “e” with the apostrophe ‘ –> e’
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